Benjamin Franklin[ edit ] In a draft, "Proposed Articles of Confederation", presented to the Continental Congress on May 10,Benjamin Franklin called for a "perpetual Alliance" with the Indians for the nation about to take birth, especially with the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy: A perpetual Alliance offensive and defensive, is to be entered into as soon as may be with the Six Nations; their Limits to be ascertained and secured to them; their Land not to be encroached on, nor any private or Colony Purchases made of them hereafter to be held good; nor any Contract for Lands to be made but between the Great Council of the Indians at Onondaga and the General Congress. The Boundaries and Lands of all the other Indians shall also be ascertained and secured to them in the same manner; and Persons appointed to reside among them in proper Districts, who shall take care to prevent Injustice in the Trade with them, and be enabled at our general Expense by occasional small Supplies, to relieve their personal Wants and Distresses. Thomas Jefferson[ edit ] In his Notes on the State of VirginiaThomas Jefferson defended American Indian culture and marveled at how the tribes of Virginia "never submitted themselves to any laws, any coercive power, any shadow of government" due to their "moral sense of right and wrong".
Five assimilated tribes, the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw and Seminoles, known as the "Five Civilized Tribes" negotiated approximately thirty treaties with the United States between and InPresident Monroe announced to Congress that he thought all Indians should be relocated west of the Mississippi.
Monroe was pressured by the state of Georgia to make his statement because gold had been discovered on Cherokee land in Northwest Georgia and the state of Georgia wanted to claim it.
The Cherokees resisted and sought to maintain their land. They had adopted a formal constitution, declared an independent Cherokee nation, and elected John Ross as their Chief in As expected, the Georgia legislature annulled the Cherokee constitution and ordered seizure of their lands.
The Cherokees again resisted and took their claim of sovereignty to the United States Supreme court. In their second case, Worcester v. The Court ruled "the Indian nation was a "distinct community in which the laws of Georgia can have no force" and into which Georgians could not enter without the permission of the Cherokees themselves or in conformity with treaties.
Houghton Mifflin Company, I have long viewed your condition with great interest. For many years I have been acquainted with your people, and under all variety of circumstances, in peace and war.
Your fathers were well known to me, and the regard which I cherished for them has caused me to feel great solicitude for your situation. To these feelings, growing out of former recollections, have been added the sanction of official duty, and the relation in which, by the Constitution and laws, I am placed towards you.
Listen to me, therefore, as your fathers have listened, while I communicate to you my sentiments on the critical state of your affairs. You are now placed in the midst of a white population. Your peculiar customs, which regulated your intercourse with one another, have been abrogated by the great political community among which you live; and you are now subject to the same laws which govern the other citizens of Georgia and Alabama.
You are liable to prosecutions for offences, and to civil actions for a breach of any of your contracts.
Your young men are acquiring habits of intoxication. With strong passions, and without those habits of restraint, which our laws inculcate and render necessary, they are frequently driven to excesses which must eventually terminate in their ruin.
The game has disappeared among you, and you must depend upon agriculture and the mechanic arts for support. And, yet, a large portion of your people have acquired little or no property in the soil itself, or in any article of personal property which can be useful to them.
How, under these circumstances can you live in the country you now occupy? Of all this I warned your people, when I met them in council eighteen years ago.
I then advised them to sell out their possessions East of the Mississippi and to remove to the country west of that river. This advice I have continued to give you at various times from that period down to the present day, and can you now look back and doubt the wisdom of this council?
Had you then removed, you would have gone with all the means necessary to establish yourselves in a fertile country, sufficiently extensive for your subsistence, and beyond the reach of the moral evils which are hastening your destruction.
Instead of being a divided people as you now are, arrayed into parties bitterly opposed to each other, you would have been a prosperous and a united community.
Your farms would have been open and cultivated, comfortable houses would have been erected, the means of subsistence abundant and you would have been governed by your own customs and laws, and removed from the effects of a white population.
Look even at the experience of the last few years. What have you gained by adhering to the pernicious counsels which have led you to reject the liberal offers made for your removal? They promised you an improvement in your condition. But instead of that, every year has brought increasing difficulties.
How, then, can you place confidence in the advice of men who are misleading you for their own purposes, and whose assurances have proved, from the experience of every year, to be utterly unfounded? I have no motive, my friends, to deceive you. I am sincerely desirous to promote your welfare.
Listen to me, therefore, while I tell you that you cannot remain where you now are. Circumstances that cannot be controlled, and which are beyond the reach of human laws, render it impossible that you can flourish in the midst of a civilized community. You have but one remedy within your reach.
And that is, to remove to the west and join your countrymen, who are already established there.Andrew Jacksons remark, "john Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it" refers to the president's intention to.
move the cherokees west of the Mississippi river, regardless of Supreme Court rulings. the path of the forced removal of the Cherokee Indians from their Georgia.
The Trail of Tears was a series of forced relocations of Native American peoples from their ancestral homelands in the Southeastern United States, to areas to the west (usually west of the Mississippi River) that had been designated as Indian Territory.
Yet, only fourteen months later, Jackson prompted Congress to pass the Removal Act, a bill that forced Native Americans to leave the United States and settle in the Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River.
Authorized the removal of native Americans who live east of the Mississippi River to west of the Mississippi. Who was the Indian removal act passed by?
President Andrew Jackson. Why was the Indian removal act passed? First tribe to move west Mississippi gov toke charge of their gov Gov didn't give them enough supplies and 1/4 of them died.
During Andrew Jackson’s presidency from to , a lot of controversial decisions were made. The removal of Cherokee Indians to land west of the Mississippi River in the ’s was one, and this was more a change of the national policy than a reformulation.
Jackson believed that any Indians who did not specifically side with and fight for the United States should move west of the Mississippi. Thus, Chief Junaluska's Cherokees should stay put.